Minggu, 01 Mei 2011

Report Text_Animals

Animals

The Animal Kingdom

The animal kingdom is huge. It contains more than a million species. Most are small - much smaller than your eyes can see. But a few, like elephants and whales, are giants. All animals have one thing in common. They cannot make food. They need to eat plants or other animals to survive. All animals also need oxygen to survive. Animals include everything from ants, spiders, and worms to fish, lizards,bears, dogs, birds, cats, and humans.

Those with Backbones and Those Without

An eastern ribbon snake eats a bullfrog by swallowing it whole. It will take many days for the snake to digest the frog and be ready to eat again.
An eastern ribbon snake eats a bullfrog by swallowing it whole. It will take many days for the snake to digest the frog and be ready to eat again.
©K.Campbell/GLOBIO.org
When you think of living things, you probably think first of animals. Animals have their ownKingdom, Animalia, which is a scientificclassification. Because the animal kingdom is so big, scientists begin by dividing it into two general groups, vertebrates andinvertebrates. Vertebrates are animals with backbones such as humans, horses, elephants, bears, birds, fish, and frogs. Invertebrates are animals without backbones such as butterflies, ants, clams, and worms.

Vertebrates

Zebra lionfish have sharp venomous spines. This makes them powerful predators.
Zebra lionfish have sharp venomous spines. This makes them powerful predators.
©K.Campbell/GLOBIO.org
Humans have more in common with eagles, snakes, and rhinoceroses than you might think. This is because we’re all vertebrates, and all vertebrates share a common design in the way they are built. Vertebrates all have a collection of bones or cartilage called thevertebral column, or backbone. They also have skeletons inside their bodies that protect their soft inner organs.
All vertebrate bodies are covered with skin. The skin may be smooth, rough, slimy, or scaly, but it's still skin. Vertebrate skin has a covering of hair, feathers, or scales. There are about 45,000 different kinds of vertebrates living on Earth. Scientists have classified vertebrates into five smaller groups, based on characteristics they share. These groups are the mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.

Invertebrates

A newly emerged red-stripe butterfly rests while its wings dry.
A newly emerged red-stripe butterfly rests while its wings dry.
©G.Ellis/GLOBIO.org
Animals without backbones are called invertebrates. Invertebrates are the largest group of animals. Scientists have identified nearly 1 million different species. Insects are one of the biggest groups. Many invertebrates have a hard or rigid outer covering. Beetles, for example, have a hard outer covering called anexoskeleton. Snails are covered by a hard shell.
Invertebrates that live in water, such as octopuses and sea anemones, are called aquatic invertebrates. Some aquatic invertebrates do not have a hard covering. They have a flexible skin wrapping their bodies. Aquatic invertebrates range in size fromplankton, which are too small to see without a microscope, to giant squid that grow to be over 20 m long!

The Champions of the Animal Kingdom

People are good at a lot of things, but if animals could enter the Olympics as one team they would probably win almost all the medals! Animals can outrun, outswim, and outjump all humans.
Young cheetahs learn to hunt by watching their mother. Later, they start taking part in the hunt. Cheetahs are the fastest land animal and can reach speeds of 113kph in short bursts.
Young cheetahs learn to hunt by watching their mother. Later, they start taking part in the hunt. Cheetahs are the fastest land animal and can reach speeds of 113kph in short bursts.
©G.Ellis/GLOBIO.org
Fastest Mammal on Land
Cheetahs can run up to 113 kph.
Fastest Mammal in Water 
Dall porpoises can swim up to 56 kph.
Fastest Flying Bird 
Peregrine falcons can dive toward the ground at more than 320 kph.
Fastest Flightless Bird
North African ostriches are the fastest birds on land. They can run at speeds up to 72 kph. They are also the biggest bird. They can weigh 155 kg.
Fastest Fish
Sailfish can swim up to 109 kph.
Loudest Animal
The blue whale’s low-frequency pulses are as loud as 188 decibels. This is louder than a jet engine. A blue whale’s call can be detected more than 805 km away. On land, the loudest animals are howler monkeys. Their howls can be heard 4.8 km away.
Arctic terns have the longest annual migration of any animal. In its life, the average Arctic tern will travel a distance equal to going to the Moon and back.
Arctic terns have the longest annual migration of any animal. In its life, the average Arctic tern will travel a distance equal to going to the Moon and back.
©M.Campbell/GLOBIO.org
Longest Migration
Arctic terns migrate to and from the Antarctic - about 35,405 km round trip - each year. Among mammals, gray whales and northern elephant seals are the migration champions. They travel up to 20,900 km round trip each year.
Deadliest Animal
Female Anopheles mosquitoes, which carry and transmit malaria, play a role in the deaths of more than a million people each year.
Most Venomous Animal
A single sea wasp (a kind of jellyfish with 60 tentacles, each 4 mlong) has enough venom to kill 60 adult humans.
Strongest Animal
The rhinoceros beetle can lift 850 times its own weight.
Longest Gestation
Asian elephants are born after a gestation period of 19 to 22 months.
Largest Mammal 
Blue whales are the largest mammals of all time and the largest living animal. Females grow to a length of about 27 m. They may weigh well over 100 metric tons. The heaviest blue whale weighed more than 190 metric tons. The longest ever measured was more than 33 m.
African elephant bulls are the heaviest land animal. Large males may weigh as much as 5,895kg. Despite their power and size, elephants are vegetarians, or herbivores.
African elephant bulls are the heaviest land animal. Large males may weigh as much as 5,895kg. Despite their power and size, elephants are vegetarians, or herbivores.
©G.Ellis/GLOBIO.org
Largest Living Animal on Land
African elephants are the heaviest land animal. They are also the second tallest land animal. Largebulls (males) weigh more than5,895 kg and are 3.5 m tall at the shoulder. Giraffes, which can grow to a height of 5 m, are the tallest land animals. Large males weigh more than 1,800 kg.
Smallest Vertebrate
Australia's stout infantfish, slightly smaller than the better-known dwarf goby, is less than 1 cm long.
Smallest Bird
Adult bee hummingbirds, found in Cuba, weigh about 2 g.
Smallest Mammal
Adult bumblebee bats, which live in Thailand, weigh about 2 g.
Longest Lifespan
In the 1770s, British explorer Captain James Cook presented a Madagascar radiated tortoise to the royal family of Tonga. The tortoise lived until 1965. It was at least 188 years old when it died! Several Galápagos tortoises have lived past age 150.

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